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What is an Affirmative Defense?

When someone is sued, that person, known as the defendant, probably has some thoughts regarding why the claims against them are incorrect, excused, or defensible. Generally speaking, these thoughts can be turned into affirmative defenses. To reduce or stop a judgment from being entered, a defendant will need to allege the proper affirmative defense, prepare evidence to support each defense, and present that evidence in court. Importantly, the affirmative defense must be pled in the responsive pleading or it could be deemed waived.

Colorado Rule of Civil Procedure 8 states: "A party shall state in short and plain terms his defenses to each claim asserted and shall admit or deny the averments of the adverse party." The list of general affirmative defenses in Rule 8 contains the following:

  • "accord and satisfaction,
  • arbitration and award,
  • assumption of risk,
  • contributory negligence,
  • duress,
  • estoppel,
  • failure of consideration,
  • fraud,
  • illegality,
  • injury by fellow servant,
  • laches,
  • license,
  • payment,
  • release,
  • res judicata,
  • statute of frauds,
  • statute of limitations,
  • waiver, and
  • any other matter constituting an avoidance or affirmative defense. Any mitigating circumstances to reduce the amount of damage shall be affirmatively pleaded."

However, this is not necessarily an exhaustive list. Affirmative defenses, avoidances, and/or mitigating circumstances generally exist for each type of civil claim in Colorado. It's important to review each claim alleged by the plaintiff and see if there is case law and statutes on point that provide more defenses. For example:

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At Volpe Law, our attorneys are ready to help you with your potential claim/defense: give us a call as 720-441-3328 or complete a consultation request form for more information on how we can help!


The information contained on this website is provided for informational purposes only. It is not legal advice and should not be construed as providing legal advice on any subject matter. Laws frequently change and therefore this content is not necessarily up to date, nor comprehensive. Contact us or another attorney with any legal questions specific to your matter. You may request a consultation by completing our consultation request form.

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